The basic structural products produced by the hemp plant are the seeds, flower, stalk, and root.

Seeds are used as the germline for the plant and is also a source of nutrition for birds and humans, as well as the source of hemp seed oil, meal or cake (from the remnants of the seeds after the oil has been pressed, which is then then milled into flour).

Hemp flower is the main source of CBDs, terpenes, and other organic compounds. Hemp flower can be smoked and used to produce essential oils and can also be used for the extraction of CBDs.

Hemp stalks are very woody, and, as a comparison, is tougher than sunflower stalks. The stalk is the source of primary and secondary fibers, hurd (or shives), and bast. From hemp stalk, the primary and secondary fibers are used in textile production and as construction materials (paper products, pressboard, concrete, shingles, and wood substitutes). The hurd fiber can be used as a replacement for plastic micro-fibers in concrete and as a replacement for sawdust as a bedding. Finally, the woody material can be converted to methane and through chemical reactions converted into fuels, oils, and plastics.

Seeds are the germline for the hemp plant and are composed of 30% oil. Pressing out the oil produces the hemp seed oil, and the remnants consist of a meal or cake that can be fed to animals or milled in a flour. The flour is gluten free, high in protein, contains essential amino acids, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids, including omega-3, and Omega-6, as well as gamma linolenic acid. Similarly, the seeds can be consumed themselves, as well as shucked or de-shelled and consumed as “hemp hearts”.

The flower is the source of CBDs, terpenes, and other organic compounds. It can be shredded and rolled into cigarettes or cigars and smoked. However, the usual treatment is the extraction of the CBDs using processing equipment, employing one of several methods – ethanol, propane, butane, or super critical carbon dioxide extraction. From the process of converting flower or biomass into the isolate or crystal, CBD includes transitioning through the intermediates of crude, distillate, mother liqueur, to the final product of isolate.

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